Winners are grinners at the 2016 Rio Olympic games
The gold, silver and bronze medals handed out at the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games may also feature a hint of green, with the organizing committee launching an initiative to craft the awards with metals harvested from unused electronic devices.
Announced yesterday, the venture calls on the people of Japan to donate their old gadgets and play a part in forming the some 5,000 Olympic and Paralympic medals that will be awarded at the 2020 games. The move is a response to a recommendation from the International Olympic Committee that calls for sustainability to be worked into the planning and execution of the 2020 games.
This means that collection boxes will be placed in public offices and more than 2,400 of mobile phone operator NTT Docomo's stores. The public will be invited to drop off their unused electronic gadgets as the organizing committee aims to gather eight tons of metal, an amount that would be reduced to two tons throughout the production process.
"Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic medals will be made out of people's thoughts and appreciation for avoiding waste," said Japan's three-time Olympic gold medallist Kohei Uchimura. "I think there is an important message in this for future generations."
Japan gets serious about cybersecurity as Olympics approach
On December 9, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe saw his website fall victim to hackers. A message on Twitter from a user called _RektFaggot_ read “Whaling IS NOT Cultural Right! Your website is #TangoDown!” A screenshot attached to the tweet showed that connections to the website were timing out worldwide.
Attacks such as this are increasing in number. The latest affront came after another painful year online for Japanese business and government.
Anonymous, a loose online collective, had hacked around 100 websites in Japan between September and the end of last year to protest whaling, according to police.
That, however, is the tip of the iceberg. Japan’s pension system was hit by a virus that had been opened by an employee in May. About 1.25 million pension records were leaked in that incident. Two airports had their websites taken down, including Narita International Airport, in October.
In recent years, hacks at organizations such as Benesse, Waseda University, Sony, and Japan Airlines have proved humiliating for companies and institutions, and have put consumer data at risk.
Part of the problem is that the sheer volume of attacks today is overwhelming for the unprepared. “In 2014, there were more than 25 billion cyberattacks in Japan, compared with 310 million in 2005,” says John Kirch, regional director for North Asia at security company Darktrace.
Kirch argues that companies and the government face huge issues because attacks often come from “insiders.”
“Everyone and every network interaction should be considered [with a degree of suspicion],” Kirch says.
Modern cybersecurity thus faces problems on multiple levels. Threats can come from anywhere; the increasing number of connected devices augments risk; and the number of attacks is rising. Japan needs to work on legislation, train workers, and look to the latest technology to ensure security.
A primary concern for Japan is the lack of people trained to do the work needed to secure networks. According to a government estimate, the nation would need 350,000 fully trained staff to assure secure networks. There are 265,000 people working in cybersecurity today, and 160,000 of them need additional training.
“In the short-term, Japan needs to depend on and trust its partners to help with this shortage,” says Ed Adams, CEO of Security Innovation, a Massachusetts-based company.
“[We] had so many high profile Japanese customers that we realized Japanese organizations were starting to take cybersecurity seriously,” says Maureen Robinson, Security Innovation’s marketing director. “And, given the Japanese culture—[when they are committed they do it right]—we decided that investment [in the country] made sense.”
Having worked with companies such as Sony Corporation, Rakuten, Inc., Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Renesas Electronics Corporation, and Honda Motor Co., Ltd., Security Innovation in 2014 made 44 of its courses available in Japanese. Since then, its presence in the country has increased.
“Our main activity in Japan is selling our online secure software engineering training product,” says Adams. “We do this via a partnership with NRI Secure [part of the Nomura family of companies.]”
Security Innovation is also involved in providing cybersecurity to the Japanese government. With the Olympic and Paralympic Games coming up in 2020, Japan is likely to face increasing attacks from hackers looking for the glory of a high-profile hit during a prestigious event.
Additionally, many of the plans for making Tokyo into a smarter city will also increase the areas in which there are potential vulnerabilities.
“Tokyo plans to deploy RoboTaxis for the 2020 Games; these cars need to be secure and accurate in terms of delivering passengers to the desired destination,” Adams says.Other organizations in the private sector are also looking to Japan. “The U.S. Department of Commerce is organizing a Cybersecurity Business Development Mission to Japan, [South] Korea, and Taiwan that will visit Japan on May 16 and 17, with about 20 companies participating,” says Erick Kish, a commercial attaché at the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo.
Beyond working with private companies, Japan is also moving on legislation to ensure the government can better manage security threats.
Last year, the nation unveiled a new cybersecurity strategy. The paper, updated after the pension records were lost in a hack, increases the government’s power to monitor for threats and tackle them if necessary. The Government Security Operation Coordination team now oversees cybersecurity for all government bodies.
Recommendations in the paper, which was approved by the cabinet, include developing a strategy for sharing and communicating relevant information more clearly.
In the event of an attack, “the Government will extensively share obtained information on the occurred incident, including attackers’ methods, with the governmental bodies, critical information infrastructure operators, and other relevant parties, to prevent the damage from becoming more serious,” according to the paper.
Admiral Dennis C. Blair, who served as director of US National Intelligence from 2009 to 2010, believes Japan’s cybercrime strategy will take time to become effective. “Both the strategy and the organizations are new, and will require strong implementation and dynamic adjustment, since [technology] is evolving rapidly.”
Training can help address these issues. For Security Innovation, changing some preconceived cultural notions in Japan would help tackle cybersecurity problems.“The premise of almost every Japanese national is that all people in Japan are good. Hence, there is no need for security,” Adams says.
Robinson adds that the changes brought about by the Internet require changing the cybersecurity culture of the country.
“There are no ‘borders,’ so the concept of protecting yourself via isolation and strict border and immigration laws doesn’t really apply anymore. Japan is less likely to be attacked with planes and guns than with cybersecurity volleys,” she says.Technological advances over the past few years also mean that businesses and other organizations today have more options for protecting themselves than ever before. Darktrace, for example, does not protect companies in a conventional manner.
“As the world becomes more connected, the potential for data and network breach is causing companies to realize that they have maybe already been hacked,” Kirch says. “For instance, when Japan Airlines was hacked, the hacker had been traveling around the company’s network for about a month before the attack was discovered.”
To solve this problem, Darktrace uses a method it calls “Enterprise Immune System.” Instead of looking for known issues, its system learns the routines of devices, users, and networks, while looking out for anomalies.
“We use advanced filtering, categorization, and mathematics to connect the dots and take different types of activity that may be a small trace of possible wrong behavior and look for other incidents. Then you can make a judgment call on whether there is a trendline, and if this is a growing threat. If it is, you can identify the device in question, which may have malware, or the perpetrator.”
For years, a game of cat and mouse has been playing out between hackers and cybersecurity companies. New technologies, however, are giving organizations an increasing amount of firepower to tackle threats.Kirch believes this may be a tipping point in favor of businesses. “A lot of people have the mindset…‘I’ve been lucky so far, so I am probably going to be lucky next year, too.’ I think it is time for organizations to be able to find a way to analyze what’s going on…to understand the normal behavior of every network, device, and person.”
Blair says that, however, will take time. “I believe that over time companies will learn what measures they must take to manage the risk of cybercrime, and that cooperation among cybersecurity companies, law enforcement organizations, and the companies victimized by cyberattacks will increase. When these two positive trends reach a critical point, cybercrime can be first contained, and then reduced. However I believe we are at least a decade from that point.”
Global warming could make the Summer Olympics nearly impossible by 2085
Researchers have claimed that global warming could make many cities around the world too hot to host the Summer Olympic Games in the coming decades.
The team concludes that in just 70 years, only eight Northern Hemisphere cities outside Western Europe will be cool enough to host the games, making it increasingly hard for organisers to continue with their current system.
"Climate change could constrain the Olympics going forward," said lead researcher Kirk Smith from the University of California, Berkeley. "And not just because of rising sea levels."
Smith and his colleagues came to this conclusion by analysing heat radiation, humidity, temperature, and wind data from two separate climate models focused on possible Olympic Games sites, which combined make up a model they call the wetbulb globe temperature (WBGT).
Using the WBGT, the team predicted the temperatures of various cities in the Northern Hemisphere in the coming decades, with populations of over 600,000 people - one of the current stipulations for a city to host the games.
They then looked at which of these cities had a 10 percent chance of having to cancel their outdoor marathon events because temperatures would be at unsafe levels in the future.
Right now, this '10 percent' criterion is used to choose which cities will host the games, because the marathon is extremely dependent on weather conditions, and cancelling it on short notice would drastically impact the overall games.
"If you're going to be spending billions of dollars to host an event, you're going to want have a level of certainty that you're not going to have to cancel it at the last minute," says Smith.
With all of these criteria in place, the team used their model to see which cities would likely be unfit for future Olympic events, concluding that only eight out the 543 viable countries in the Northern Hemisphere would fit the bill by 2085.
"The findings indicate that by 2085, Istanbul, Madrid, Rome, Paris and Budapest – all cities that are or were in contention for either the 2020 or 2024 Summer Olympics – would be unfit to host the games," the team said. "Tokyo, the city that has secured the 2020 summer Olympiad, would also be too hot to ensure athlete safety, should these projections come to pass."
The cities that would still be viable, according to the researchers projections, are St. Petersburg (Russia), Riga (Latvia), Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan), Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia), Calgary (Canada), Vancouver (Canada), and San Francisco. In Western Europe, up to 25 smaller cities would be viable, but no country in Latin America or Africa would.
The team says that even though these findings are specifically looking at future Olympic events, they show just how much global warming could potentially impact our society.
"Climate change is going to force us to change our behaviour from the way things have always been done," says Smith. "This includes sending your kids outside to play soccer or going out for a jog. It is a substantially changing world."
The team isn’t alone in this opinion, either. Back in May, an international team of researchers found evidence that climate change might trigger a mass exodusfrom the Middle East and Northern Africa by 2065 because temperatures will reach a dangerous level.
But it’s important to point out that the current study is a commentary only based on modelling. Much more research needs to be done before we can have a better idea of what our future could look like.
And there are definitely work-arounds for the Olympics to continue, even if this bleak forecast bears out, such as having more events inside, or hosting certain events in different parts of the world in the same yea. So climate change isn't necessarily the end of the games, but it's definitely something worth thinking about.
The commentary was published in The Lancet.